International Culinary Terms
affinage In cheese making, the ripening of a cheese affineur In cheese making, the person who oversees .the ripening of cheeses aioli A garlic mayonnaise popular in Provence. aiguillettes Long, thin slices of breast meat of poultry or game birds. ala carte Foods prepared to order; each dish priced separately. al dente Firm yet yielding to the bite. Refers to vegetables or pasta. allumettes Thin, finger-length hors d' oeuvres or petits fours made of puff pastry; also matchstick shapes; usually refers to. potatoes. 3/16" x 3/16 x 2" or 3" In between julienne and battonet. aperitif An alcoholic drink taken before meals to stimulate the appetite. They are generally dry, sometimes bitter and flavored with aromatic herbs. a point Referring to a cheese which is perfectly ripe and ready to eat. a sec Until dry. au gratin Term applied to foods which have a crust formed by browning grated cheese and or bread crumbs on the surface. au jus With natural pan juices. au naturel Served in a natural' state or plainly cooked. béchamel A sauce made by thickening milk with a roux. One of the five primary sauces made from roux bain marie. Water bath or double boiler; used for gentle cooking or for , keeping foods warm. ballottine A piece of meat which is boned, stuffed and rolled into the shape of a bundle barder To wrap in thin slices of fat or bacon to protect meats with no natural fat cover while roasting. barquettes Small, oval-shaped tartlets or tart shells. batonnet Vegetable stick 1/4 x 1/4 x 2 -2 1/2 inches. beurrer To rub with butter on a mould or dish. beurre blanc A white butter sauce beurre manie Equal amounts of flour and raw butter kneaded together into a smooth paste. It is used as a thickening agent blanc A liquid for cooking or toasted vegetables. 5 parts water and flour to 1 part milk blanchir To blanche. bouquet garni used for flavoring. 6 parsley stems, 2 thyme twigs, 1 bay leaf, 6 peppercorns Braiser To braise. Brunoise Cut into 1/8" x 1/8" dice chinois A cone-shaped strainer. A very fine china cap. clarifier To clarify cloute To stud or nail cloves into an onion. Toothpick stuck in meat to secure. concassee Coarsely chopped. confit Meat of pork, goose, duck etc. cooked in its own fat and preserved completely immersed in the same fat consommé Clear soup, made from clarified stock, served hot or chilled. coulis A pourable puree of vegetables, fruit or shellfish. Also, juices of cooked meat or poultry court bouillon A poaching liquid made with water, aromatic vegetables, herbs and usually an acid. For fish or poultry. couscous North African pasta, made from a paste of semolina and water, dried and ground. crouton White bread cut in various shapes, fried or toasted. crudites Raw vegetables served as an hors d 'oeuvre or relish. dame Slice of fish through the spine. deglacer To add liquid to heated pan to dilute caramelized food particles. Darne A thick cut from the center of the fish degraisser To skim or remove excess fat. digestif An alcoholic drink taken after a meal, thought to aid digestion. dorer To brush with egg wash duchesse Potato preparation using a pastry bag with a star tip duxelles A paste of finely chopped mushrooms and shallots, sautéed until dry . en coquille Cooked or served in the shell. Refers to shellfish. Ecumer To remove the scum from a stock. To remove the impurities emincer A thin slice at a 90° angle cut cross the grain Emonder To remove skin or seeds by blanching en Pappillote Wrapped in parchment in uniform size and baked entremettier Chef responsible for vegetable preparation. escalope A cross grain cut espangnole 1 of 5 primary sauces using a brown stock and tomatoes. essences A single flavor etamine A cheese cloth used to strain etuver To sweat or stew fariner To hand coat with flour. Latin for flour filet Tenderloin muscle of beef, veal, lamb or pork of a boneless piece fish. filet mignon Small cut from the tenderloin. fines herbes Blend of, fresh herbs; chervil, tarragon, chives and often parsley. flambe To flame fleurons A pastry cut in a crescent shape foie gras Liver of specially fattened geese. fond A stock or base fouler To push with a ladle or to extract friture Deep frying Fumet Fish stock. gardemanger Department of a kitchen that prepares cold food -salads, buffet items garniture Components of a dish, sometimes ingredients, sometimes decorate often giving the name to a dish. gastrique Caramelized sugars added to vinegar. Base for many sweet and sour sauces or relishes gazpacho A soup from Southern Spain made from pureed and chopped vegetables served cold. gelee Aspic Literally means jellied. gratin Crust formed on foods sprinkled with cheese and/or breadcrumbs browned, food prepared in this manner gratiner To brown griller To grill, broil or barbeque. grosse piece Centerpiece of a buffet platter hacher To chop. hollandaise 1 of 5 primary sauces using butter and egg yolk. hors d'oeuvre Appetizer. Infuser To infuse or inject with flavor Julienne A cut in strips 1/8" x 1/8" x 2" or 3" jus Juices from a roast. jus lie Thickened juices from a roast. larder To insert strips of fat into meats low in marbling. lardon A strip of back fat or bacon used for larding. Coarsely or finely diced bacon cooked, used as garnish. liaison Binding or thickening agent. Classically, egg yolks and cream. lier To thicken. macedoine Mixture of raw or cooked fruit or vegetables. May also be a diced vegetables, 1/4" on each side mandoline A very fine slicer-cutter utensil manier To do by hand or manually. marsala A fortified wine, either sweet or semi-dry from Sicily. medaillon Round or oval slice of meat or fish, circular cut. mignonette Cracked peppercorn. A side sauce for oysters made with white . mirepoix An aromatic blend of vegetables used for stocks mise en place Put in place monter To stir monter au beurre To stir in butter. mouiller To cover with liquid. nappe The desired consistency of a sauce napper To test for the thickness of a stock on the back of the spoon. pate Meat or fish dishes enclosed in pastry and baked. Served hot or cold Pappillote The little frilly paper placed on the end of bones. paupiette Thin slice of meat or fish wrapped around a stuffing or forcemeat. paysanne A rough peasant style cut. pilaf Rice that has first been cooked in fat the simmered in stock or other liquid, usually with onions and or seasonings. Pocher To poach. prix fixe Refers to a menu with set items sometimes offering a choice of entree, appetizer, and dessert. Literally, fixed price Provencial Refers to anything from the region of Provence in France. quenelle A protein dumpling made wine, vinegar, cracked peppercorn and from a mousseline and bound with eggs ramequin A small round cooking dish. Usually ceramic with straight sides. radicchio Red chicory, commonly small and round with wrinkly leaves and a bitter taste. ragout French term for stew. remouillage Re-cooking to reduce a stock. remouiller To rewet or recover with water . restaurateur A person who owns or operates a restaurant. risotto An Italian rice dish made with Arborio rice cooked in butter, with onions, wine and stock to which may be added other ingredients. roux Flour and fat, cooked, used as a binding or thickening agent Ruban A thickness consistent with a ribbon. With ribbon-like thickness. sachet A mixture of herbs and spices tied in a cheesecloth bag. savory A general term used to refer to foods that are the opposite of sweet. souffle A dish either sweet or savory , made of pureed ingredients thickened with egg yolks, and with stiffly beaten egg whites folded in and baked in a soufflé dish. singer To sprinkle or dust with flour terrine Earthenware container for cooking, also the food prepared in it. A terrine is made without a crust and is usually barded with back fat. veloute A white stock made with a blonde roux vapeur To steam vanner Aerate by stirring. vinaigrette Mixture of oil and vinegar seasoned with salt and pepper zest The colored, aromatic skin of citrus fruits.